"I want to know whether the nation's premier law enforcement agency relied on a document that looks like the National Enquirer prepared it," the member of the House Intelligence Committee said on "America's Newsroom" Wednesday.
The dossier, prepared by research firm Fusion GPS and now known to have been funded by the Clintons and the Democratic National Committee, made salacious allegations about President Trump regarding his connections with Russia.
The documents, published by Buzzfeed in a controversial move, are part of the investigations into the Trump campaign's dealings with Russia.
The House Intelligence Committee has has subpoenaed the FBI and the Justice Department for documents pertaining to the Russia dossier, but so far neither department has complied.
Gowdy, who called a congressional subpoena a "tool of last resort," said he will continue to probe for answers but expects more roadblocks.
"I think the FBI is very interested in preserving its reputation," he stated.
"If they relied upon an unsourced, unvetted document to launch a really important investigation and use it in court filings, then I think our country is big enough to handle that truth."